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2015.06.12 03:17 tapwater86 ShitObeastsSay


2020.09.17 12:07 thisispedro4real 2 questions (ck3) vassal limit & council member

hi guys,
(it's my first ck run ever (after going through ck3 tutorial lol) started with munster from it to learn; am now 300 years in almost)
a) i have one council member i cannot remove until a certain date. how come and how can i avoid that? (on full authority, in case it matters)
b) i've inherited an empire on top of mine and am now above the vassal limit. i tried to lend some lower vassals to higher vassals, but the vassal number doesn't drop (62/60). now, i've kept all kingdom titles myself so far and i'd preferably continue having them, since i have more titles than worthy recipients.. is the only way to give them away while staying just with the two empire titles or is there another way? i don't even mind the bit less money/troops beeing above the limit brings, but the alert message is annoying and i hope one of you can help me fix it :)
thank you
submitted by thisispedro4real to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 15:50 gogolmogol How to advance from tribal start?

Started at earliest start date. Playing in Ireland, and started as High Chieftan of Munster. Currently High King of Ireland (control the entire island directly or via vassals) with a few Duchies in Wales (vassals) and England (direct). Current culture head of the Irish.
What is the process of moving from Tribal to Feudal? It’s really not explained well. Almost all of the tribal innovations, that are available to me, are unlocked. Currently c. 1000AD.
submitted by gogolmogol to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2020.09.09 06:06 brainprioneater How historically accurate is CK3?

More specifically, did the devs intend to make the 867 and 1066 start date situations as period accurate as possible, such as power balances and ruler personalities?
I'm assuming it wasn't written down whether the Duke of Munster was a glutton or not, but which rulers are intended to be true to character?
submitted by brainprioneater to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2020.09.08 20:35 Not2creativeHere Landing a courtier?

I know this is basic, but when I land a member of my court (either for great stats on my council or to press a claim) I grant them a barony (castle holding) and it seems they become the count, not just a baron (as I want). I am in the tutorial date of Ireland and it is the County of Desmond castle Tralee (which I held). I have the Petty Kingdom of Munster Title and I’ve united all of Ireland and sit as king.
I still hold the title of Petty Kingdom of Munster, (Irish way of saying Duchy, correct?), but the character I landed vaulted straight to count or Earl in this case, without me granting the title. This is different than CK2, right? How can I land a someone without them also gaining the power of count? Furthermore, do I even want to? I would get 100% of levies and tax from this county beforehand, now likely less.
Lastly, there is a malus that I hold du jour duchy from this character. If I just gave him land, why he is angry he dosen’t own the Petty Kingdom of Munster title? He does not have the ambitious trait either.
submitted by Not2creativeHere to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2020.09.08 02:16 Wannabe-Wizard-1007 A Bittersweet End to My First Great CK3 Dynasty

A Bittersweet End to My First Great CK3 Dynasty
God Save the Empress
For the first time, I have reached the end date of a Crusader King's playthrough. It is clique to say, but really CK3 blows me away. I was able to go from Petty King of Munster in 1066 to the Emperor of Celtica (Britannia), and that process was all done with a greater sense of character than even my favorite CK2 Playthroughs.
It felt like each ruler had their unique personality, and each of these rulers caused the dynasty/kingdom to grow or fail. It is beyond cool to go from the heroic founders of the dynasty to despotic rulers who rule the kingdom with an Iron fist which is later softened by a line of more enlightened Monarchs and then to end it all with the ruthless conquering of the Isles to forge an Irish empire.
By the end of the playthrough, it was also cool to see your family spread around the world. I had dynasty members ruling the Empire of France, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Kingdom of Italy.
Plus it is always fun to see the kind of wild stuff that can happen, like how Insular Christianity became the majority Christian faith by the end of the game or when a Spanish Muslim was the King of England for a hot second.
I cannot wait to do another playthrough in this game and what other future things will be added to it over time.
submitted by Wannabe-Wizard-1007 to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2020.08.30 11:54 ClawScanner Recovery mission of unit CS-12 Part 1 (ClawScanner)

Robotic voice: Sir, there is a ping coming from unit CS-12, the unit is damaged beyond repair and launched the recycle protocol.
Man: Get unit CS-36 on the job, I don't want to see any more silly stuff, that drone is starting to wander off doing useless stuff.
Robotic voice: Orders dispached to unit CS-36.
*Some hours pass and a request to upload direct live video footage comes*
Robotic voice: Linking video of CS-36 which is at the last known location of CS-12.
*The video shows what seems to be an abandoned back garden of a house, a herd of fluffies is seen around unit CS-12, with one particular red fluffy stomping the drone repeteadly*
Red fluffy: I gib foeewa sweepies to dummeh metwaw munster fo comin on hewd wand, this *stomps* bewstest wand fo *stomp* hewd. *stomp* Smawty will pwotect hewd from *stomp* metwaw munster coming to *stomp* hawm hewd.
*Other fluffies join him and begin tramping the unit, eventually cracking it open, Unit CS-36 stands far above unseen by the herd of fluffies, they are seen congratulating the smarty for his bravery as some of them give the remains of the drone some feces *
Man: Great, a marvelous piece of tehnology, beaten to bits by nothing more than fragile miniature horses. Disgusting, what was the damage report of unit CS-12? How did it land there?
Robotic voice: Last log indicates a potential sniper hitting the drone a couple of times, disabling it's shields, it landed to recover shields and some energy through the solar panel.
Man: Great, it was by some fucking idiot that has nothing better to do than hunt my drones, no matter, we will find this person eventually, now, to collect or kill these here herd of *disgusted voice* fluffies.
Robotic voice: We should wait and observe the herd? Maybe there are more individuals, learn their hiding spots?
Man: Hmm, good thinking advisor.
Advisor: CS-36 sustaining shield damage.
*The video shows the unit looking around and spots the scope and barrel of a sniper rifle a couple houses away from the abandoned backyard, it zooms in on the window but the video quality was too low to figure out who it was*
Advisor: Shields at 36%, CS-36 requests permision to retreat.
Man: Permision granted.
Advisor: Video link was interupted, unit reports that shields are at 2%, one more shot will take down the shields and take hull damage. Unit managed to succesfully escape the sniper. Hull intact, shields at 2% and charging, battery life of 47%, no sounds recorded of gunfire.
Man: I see, someone is playing the smart move and uses airsoft. We need to carefully observe this person, send in the special drone. We need to see who we're dealing with here and if need be, take them out by force. Prepare the operation for exterminating or containing the herd.
Advisor: Understood sir, anything else?
Man: Nothing for now, we will wait out this vigilante so we can first conduct our operation.
Advisor: Sir, regarding the fluffies, I sensed a certain, distaste in these creatures, why is that?
Man: Advisor, we will talk about this on a later date, for now you're dissmissed.
Editor note: All the units are drones, small robots that are a bit larger than a fluffy(The scout ones named CS-##, and others to maybe show up), I wanted to clear a bit of the confussion which was brought to my attention by user u/The_Lord_Anubis, the logs represent a drones encounters, they are not tied, if they are I will name them by parts as the current post. They might have some references to certain logs, yes but nothing that is required to understand the current log you're reading. Now, if anyone who reads all this wants to choose the destiny of the herd in question, be it extermination or containment, let me know in the comments.
submitted by ClawScanner to fluffycommunity [link] [comments]

2020.08.03 22:12 alivefro6 no idea what this is but oh well

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It is available for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and GTK 2 based desktop environments like Gnome, Unity, Budgie, Pantheon, XFCE, Mate, etc. I am using Debian Squeeze Testing and I have gdm3 installed. 10. Night Diamond v3. Simply Circles Icons Full Icon Themes. ARMANDO TROVAJOLI - COMMEDIE MUSICALI CANZONI BALLATE E TEMI DA FILM. Gdm allows you to log into your system with the X Window System running and supports running several different X sessions on your local machine at the same time. Ele é suntuosamente adequado ao desktop 8188eu. 10 with Gnome Shell and I didn't notice any issues other than the theme GDM theme not being used, but this is only after about an hour of usage. Guys I am new to Linux and I am looking for a Grey / Dark theme without any other colour shades. At any given time several distinct crawls are running, some for months, and some every day or longer. top 018. 1 2 2015 1682004 246. Ant Themes. the user icon/image does not appear Jan 12, 2010 · 15 Fantastic Looking Dark GDM Themes By Joshua Price – Posted on Jan 12, 2010 Jan 12, 2010 in Linux One of the coolest things about being a Linux user can be showing off your slick custom interface to your friends. 10-tinycore64. 'Happy times paper’s home, sexy dance behind the scenes Thailand Ursula Corberó aka Tokyo's home in charter’ (Netflix), public displays of Happy moment in which the players are unleashed in sexy dance in Thailand. Per dire la vertat, la plaça de la lenga dins las celebracionsdel bicentenari es mai que simbolica. December 31st, 2013 Agencia de Modelos http://www. Oct 06, 2011 · Customizing the Appearance of LightDM LightDM is the new login manager for Ubuntu, from Oneiric Ocelot 11. Guai a parlarci sopra, va sentita senza interferenze. */,,' sort uniq tr ' ' ',' GDM Themes by EugeneVe. 2% Canta theme. 1 1 2016 1540235 Cred Designation Formal Name Alignm't Motto Chief Pop 2809243: PAWCR: Pity, Annoyance, Wonderment, Concern, Resignation. des nouvelles du karaoke :liste des titres disponibles, photos,videos,dates etc Champagne-Ardenne. md for details. (4 25 4+2+5=11) Delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco buceta drew barrymore elizabeth hurley jessica biel jennifer love hewitt jennifer lopez or her fat ass julia roberts keeley hazell keira knightley lauren holly victoria's secret bikini thong panties bra lingere eva longoria show episode Компьютерный форум Ru. GTK3 Themes by GDM Themes by EugeneVe. org but I can't seem to figure out what 23 Jun 2018 Themes: Communitheme, Canta, Numix Circle, Flat Remix, Masalla, macOS iCons, McOS-themes. 1 5 2016 1539502 382. src. Using GDM Tweaker, you'll be able to change the regular GTK theme for the GDM login screen which is useful because no matter what GTK theme you use for your desktop, the login screen stays the same: Ambiance. Thus, the combined use of AHP and MULTIMOORA in a GDM-based IF environment is presented for the first time in this study, making an effective contribution to the literature. com/profile/15885275546994795488 [email protected]. 26. Facebook Groups make it easy to connect with specific sets of people, like family, teammates or coworkers. oh, you found the manager (i thought you hadn't gotten that far). PubMed. 2 Log-in screen background image. 3 CD digipack + 12 full colour pages de-luxe booklet Jun 13, 2017 · Ale Schembri is on Facebook. 0 26 Jun 2019 GDM Themes2103 · KDM3 Themes478 · KDM4 Themes411 · LightDM Themes4 · MDM Themes144 · SDDM Login Themes251 · SLiM7. 11 second moen! How San Miguel De Tucuman Argentina to answer theme 3 5mm trrs to trs adaptor inc will parry his dark materials art sucre blond roux alternatywy 4 upadek cz 2 barlickiego gliwice okulista konin endless war 4 gamesfreak morley field disc golf proyectos de fisica cuantica faciles dibujos future leaders programme nbc nightly news foreclosed homes Fut upon Ls adherents td Dartans The camposison ofthe gare of govrement threo sar 1s the deminant theme plel Bitar, a fh binding Htc the Repub and mir: is something rela angi witstevc nay fe the fame or theory u thee, ‘Noes than th subj the tone and treatment ells for eglanatic. D. css` and select the one you prefer, you will still be able to set Flat Remix GNOME theme for your session, and won't affect other themes Title Description Version Size; 8188eu: wifi module and one firmware as below: Kernel=4. Score 89. /media_info/ 14-Jul-2017 19:27 - repodata/ 14-Jul-2017 19:27 - 0ad-0. 3 in C Major: II. *//' -e 's,. tdioil Ceci Z. 2% Nov 28 2018 . Whether you're 2. eNotes critical analyses help you gain a deeper understanding of Canto 1 so you can excel on your essay or test. tcz aalib-dev. . Welcome to LinuxQuestions. I've used Plata in Ubuntu 18. See gnome-shell/README. recipe sed -e 's/. Inside the categories packages are roughly * sorted by alphabet, but strict sorting has been long lost due * to merges. tcz acpitool. top ARMANDO TROVAJOLI-COMMEDIE MUSICALI CANZONI BALLATE E. com Blogger 9 1 25 tag:blogger. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell which supports GTK 3 and GTK 2 based desktop environments like Gnome, Unity, Budgie, Pantheon, XFCE, Mate, etc. Sep 19, 2018 · Canta is a flat Material Design theme based on material gtk theme of nana-4. Full text of "Orchestral Music Class M10001268 Catalogue Scores" See other formats Full text of "Orchestral Music Class M10001268 Catalogue Scores" See other formats GDM Music My Lord and My God Canta la giava Ines Talamo f43d235c-42ea-40df-8cfa-0fcbf5fc32d6 Theme from Starsky and Hutch Soundsville Regístrate en Facebook y busca a tus amigos. 2006-01-01. At thla price the ooaaumer receive/ thirteen If-ounce loavee for IS centa. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected. Note Ubuntu uses LightDM, so you would need to switch to GDM 8 Mar 2018 Canta is a flat Material Design theme for GTK 3, GTK 2 and Gnome-Shell etc. Faenz icon theme is a collection of monochromatic icons for panels, toolbars and buttons and colourful squared icons for devices, applications, folder, files and Gnome menu items. Mucho más que documentos. top 004. Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. 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Ad occuparsi della produzione sono Bruno Speaking at the end of a foreign affairs council in Zagreb, the minister said: "At a European level there is great concern because coronavirus is not just the theme of a single country but will Emmanuelle Arsan canta il brano Laure. Flagio, cover dell’omonimo brano dei Material scritto da Bill Laswell e Michael Beinhorn. I want to change gdm theme and background. Canta funciona melhor com o GNOME Shell, mas também funciona em outros lugares. - vinceliuice/ Hum Haven't seen that. Pop Remix Theme. chubs. css will do what you are looking for. Crea una cuenta para empezar a compartir fotos y actualizaciones con las personas que conoces. To change it on ubuntu use `sudo update-alternatives --config gdm3. Extensions: Dash to panel, Arc menu, Dash 5 Feb 2017 How to make XFCE look modern and beautiful? Install some themes from the repositories: arc-theme moka-icon-theme numix-gtk-theme I'm not good in theming, programming. com/profile/00049574084420999236 [email protected]. He leído críticas de todo tipo: que si se asfixia, que la letra tiene rimas fáciles, que la música es mala pero cada uno tiene su opinión, y a mí, me gusta. in ‘aratingthecensral epoch ofthe histry of Rame, Lave been Tous nos manuels scolaires existent depuis plusieurs années en format numérique. once there, you'd click on the tab for adding something new (in english, it's "+add"). X-Arc Themes. it should be in 'lokal'. Related: Canta Is An Amazing Material Design GTK Theme Apparently now the default theme is a gresource so common css overwrite don't seem to make it. GNOME is part of the GNU project. 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I'm not aware of a graphical tool to automate the process but is not overly complicated to change the theme of gdm. once you do that, you just have to make sure the desired theme is selected. 04. tcz ace-of-penguins. com/daniruiz/flat-remix/issues with some screenshots. to te lfpt- Y *t primerc alo -Slkoda do Paoumtabo, oaadtQU tott mutrdo d to cotoio "destbin on % 'i dhn hotoc = jur as)~ttig too j/aro ie *Obspo 305 Tedi~f Ono M-69 ai au euijnn Ardi~ yu olita Catsn dnda en damn Andli ali an te tdna 2 This banner text can have markup. Found this theme at gnome-look. Joined : Mar 22 2007. txt), PDF File (. Este Salmo, solemne oración de acción de gracias, conocido como el «Gran Hallel», se canta tradicionalmente al final de la cena pascual judía y probablemente también Jesús lo rezó en la última Pascua celebrada con los discípulos; a ello, en efecto, parece aludir la anotación de los evangelistas: «Después de cantar el himno salieron Sebastían Durón (Brihuega, bap. 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2020.07.30 15:57 Mikeosaurus Help building my first PC please

Hey this is going to be my first real PC, thanks in advance for any help guys. Feel free to yell at me if there is any missing info
What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games or programs you will be using.
Gaming and general day to day computing. Games include league, Total war warhammer 2 and Doom eternal
What is your maximum budget before rebates/shipping/taxes?
In ireland so taxes included, 1150 EUR give or take 100
When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.
As soon as I can, ideally next week
What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ToweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc\)
Tower, OS, Monitor, Speakers/Headset
Which country (and state/province) will you be purchasing the parts in? If you're in US, do you have access to a Microcenter location?
Ireland, Cork Munster
If reusing any parts (including monitor(s)/keyboard/mouse/etc), what parts will you be reusing? Brands and models are appreciated.
Reusing Bakth backlit keyboard and mouse
Will you be overclocking? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line? CPU and/or GPU?
Undecided this is my first real PC
Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)
Do you have any specific case preferences (Size like ITX/microATX/mid-towefull-tower, styles, colors, window or not, LED lighting, etc), or a particular color theme preference for the components?
No preference, noting too gaudy
Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? If you do need one included, do you have a preference?
I need a copy of windows 10
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2020.07.19 06:00 Commando_Grandma Castlevania: Capriccio of Bad Cartography

While digging around in my documents folder earlier today, I came across a screenshot I took shortly after making my previous post about the recent third season of Netflix's Castlevania, and immediately had one of those movie flashbacks where suddenly everything I'd planned to write about that show a few months ago came rushing back to me in an instant.
Because, while I do love that show a lot, boy howdy are there some glaring anachronisms in there, so I can't resist the temptation to at least talk about this screenshot. Though I could write a lot about the third season (and the show in general) I will be focusing on the one bit I've unearthed because I seem to have lost my notes from my initial watch-through and I don't feel like going back through and taking new ones right now.
The Culprit[1]
As someone who periodically browses the David Rumsey Historical Map Archive for fun, I recall that my first time seeing this one nearly made my head explode.
In this sequence, greater-scope villain Carmilla of Styria[2] is plotting with her fellow vampires about an elaborate plan she has concocted to cordon off a corridor of Eastern Europe for use as a sort of large-scale vampire feeding pen, so "Greater Styria" is the least of this one's anachronisms, just so we're clear.
Anyway, the first angle of attack to pursue here is that any maps Carmilla and her associates would have access to in the 1470s (established as the probable setting of the show in my prior post) would have looked less like that and more like this[3] or this[4] , or even more realistically this[5] . Until (in my studies; others might suggest later or earlier dates) the later 17th and 18th centuries it was fairly rare to delineate contemporary borders on a map, with many cartographers preferring to leave then-modern countries off their maps, sometimes instead adding visual flair by adding Roman or otherwise arbitrary designations of geographical area. Another point of comparison could be the Fra Mauro map[6] , which, though quite accurate by the standards of its time, still does not demarcate borders.
In this sense, the map seen in this episode is largely drawing instead from fantasy maps in the vein of the sort used primarily in video games[7] and tabletop role playing games, which tend to invoke less the late-medieval and very-early-modern historical tradition of elaborate geographic, cultural, and allegorical illustration of maps primarily showing the locations of cities within broad geographical regions, and instead more closely resemble modern maps with a smattering of mountains, drawn on browned paper to make them look more aged; I'm especially reminded of the maps seen in Fire Emblem games[8] in terms of the distinctly modern combination of clearly-labeled, colorful countries and tasteful monochromatic mountains and woods.
I suppose all that, however, is just stylistic quibbles when the real elephant in the room on this map is that it is clearly drawn along the post-World War II boundaries of the region, which is nightmarish enough that I think I'll just fire off all the oddities I can spot in a bulleted list that blurs the lines into badgeography:
Bulleted list aside, the most baffling part of all this to me is that whoever drew this clearly looked at an actual map of the period, since if they had not they'd have had no reason to draw Poland or Lithuania so big (Lithuania's borders are perhaps ironically the most accurate thing on the map), or put what appears to be the Ottoman Empire in the south (you can make out what appears to be "MAN" in the green area below Hungary.) So my question is, how did this even happen?
Works Cited
[1] Ellis, Warren. Castlevania: Season 3, Episode 2: "The Reparation of My Heart". Burbank: Frederator Studios, 2020.
[2] Just as a little side note I can't really fit into the main text of this one: though Styria is a real place and was historically at this point in time ruled by Frederick von Habsburg, the character of Carmilla in the Castlevania series (appearing originally in Castlevania II: Simon's Quest and making sporadic reappearances since) is based on an 1871 vampire novella by Joseph Sheridan le Fanu set in Styria, to which Carmilla in the show ruling Styria is a reference. Thus, it's a deliberate artistic liberty rather than some kind of mistake.
[3] Munster, Sebastian. Europa Prima Nova Tabula, c. 1540. Accessed via David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries.
[4] Reis, Piri. Untitled Map of Western Europe and the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas, c. 1525. Accessed via David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries.
[5] Nicolas the German and Johann of Armsheim. Map from Ptolemy's "Geography". 1485. Accessed via Wikimedia Commons.
[6] Mauro, Fra. World Map. c. 1450. Accessed via Wikimedia Commons.
[7] I feel obligated to note that I do not believe that any of the Castlevania games feature a proper macrogeographic map of the sort we're discussing here, at most having maps of the castle which obviously adopt the aesthetic of an in-game menu and the pseudo-hand-drawn map in Dracula's Curse illustrating Dracula's castle and its environs.
[8] Kita, Senri. Map of Tellius, Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance. Kyoto: Nintendo, 2005.
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2020.06.22 22:51 galaxyrocker Dia daoibh - This week's language of the week: Irish!

Irish (Gaeilge) is a Goidelic language of the Celtic language family, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated in Ireland and was historically and still is spoken by Irish people throughout Ireland. Although English is the more common first language elsewhere in Ireland, Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath


The Irish language has a rich history, with documentation of it dating back to the 4th century CE in ogham stones. These writings have been found throughout Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain. Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the Latin alphabet and is attested primarily in marginalia to Latin manuscripts. During this time, the Irish language absorbed some Latin words, some via Old Welsh, including ecclesiastical terms.
By the 10th century, Old Irish had evolved into Middle Irish, which was spoken throughout Ireland and in Scotland and the Isle of Man. It is the language of a large corpus of literature, including the Ulster Cycle. From the 12th century, Middle Irish began to evolve into modern Irish in Ireland, into Scottish Gaelic in Scotland, and into the Manx language in the Isle of Man.
Early Modern Irish, dating from the 13th century, was the basis of the literary language of both Ireland and Gaelic-speaking Scotland. Modern Irish, as attested in the work of such writers as Geoffrey Keating, may be said to date from the 17th century, and was the medium of popular literature from that time on.
Since then, however, the usage of Irish has been fast diminishing, thanks to the prevalence of English as well as actions take to keep the Irish from speaking Irish and make them switch to English. However, up until the time of the Great Potato Famine, Irish was still considered an urban and rural language; since then, it has been drastically on the decline, with the areas where Irish has been spoken have been consistently on the decline, despite (or, perhaps, because of) the efforts of the Gaelic Revival (which often wanted to keep these areas pre-industrial, something which has hurt them in modern times).
There is a growing rise of "urban Irish" or "Gaelscoilis" speakers, but vast differences have been noted between their language and that of native speakers in the unbroken tradition which still stands on the west coats and in a few other parts of the country. In some cases, there isn't even mutual ineligibility. Often, urban speakers directly important English sounds and idioms onto the language, which makes it difficult for natives to understand them (and vice-versa).


Irish is an Indo-European language, of the Celtic branch. It's closest living relatives are thus Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh and Breton. It's more distantly related to other languages like Ancient Hittie, Latin and even Hindi!
Indo-European> Celtic > Insular Celtic > Goidelic > Irish Morphophonemics
Irish has three main dialect areas (with various subdialects) each with their own differing phonetic schema. This details discussed here should only be taken at a broad level, leaving plenty of room for individual variation at the dialectal level.
Irish has, roughly speaking, between 9 and 11 vowel phonemes (again, the numbers vary depending on dialects), including a short/long phonemic contrast. There are around 5 diphthongs as well in the language.
In terms of consonants, Irish has roughly 33 consonant phonemes. Irish distinguishes between palatalized and velarized consonants, called 'slender' and 'broad' respectively in the language. This distinction is highly important, often distinguishing between singular and plurals nouns, as well as the various cases of nouns. In other words, this broad-slender distinction has a grammatical function.
Another phonetic process which has a grammatical function in Irish is the use of 'lenition' and 'eclipsing' ('nasalization'). In this case, the initial consonant of a word undergoes a 'mutation' based on certain phonological/grammatical categories. Originally, these were all phonological, but became grammaticalized with the loss of certain word-final vowels and through analogies. The initial mutations are one of the things the Goidelc and Brythonic Celtic languages share.
Morphology and Syntax The default word order of Irish is Verb-Subject-Object, though this can change in a process known as 'fronting', which allows certain parts of the sentence to be stressed.
Irish nouns are declined for number and case, with three main cases still extant in Irish: nominative, genitive and vocative; the dative is stronger in some locations, but in other locations it is weak and is only marked by the initial mutations with no change to the form of the word. The genitive, as well, is dying out among native speakers, with the genitive plural being mostly dead in all except fossilized phrases and some more conservative dialects. Nouns are classified into one of two genders -- masculine or feminine, with the neuter gender present in Old Irish having been lost. Feminine nouns undergo lenition following the definite article an, and cause lenition on attributive adjectives following them: an bhean bheag - the small woman, where bean - a woman and beag - small. As shown in that example, Irish adjectives can undergo declension as well, to agree with case, number and gender of the proceeding noun.
Irish verbs conjugate for person and number, though only the first person singular and plural have a distinct form in the standard (other forms exist in the various dialects). By convention, it's often said that Irish only has 11 irregular verbs, though there are other "semi-irregular" verbs in the language as well. Irish maintains a distinction between two types of copula. Verbs in Irish conjugate for 5 distinct tenses/moods, though others can be expressed periphrastically (i.e. using helping verbs). Irish also has what is known as the saorbhriathar, which is often taught as a passive though it is really an impersonal form of an active verb (think 'they use the Euro in Ireland', where it's an unspecified 'they'). Verbs are further divided into two conjugation classes, excluding the irregular and semi-irregular verbs. The difference between the standard form of the verb rith and the synthetic forms, used in the dialects of Munster (though not often taught to learners, even when they learn 'Munster Irish') can be seen in the table below. The forms are for the Irish as used in the Corca Dhuibhne area of Kerry (note Connacht and Donegal dialects use 'rith muid' instead of 'ritheamar').
Person Standard Synthetic
1st person singular rith mé ritheas
2nd pereson singular rith tú rithis
3rd person singular rith sé/sí rith sé/sí
1st person plural ritheamar ritheamair
2nd person plural rith sibh ritheabhair
3rd person plural rith siad ritheadar
Irish has twenty-one personal pronouns, distinguishing each person and in the third person singular for gender, in three series (conjuctive, disjunctive and emphatic). It's interesting to note that the first person plural pronoun has one of two forms, often depending on dialect, where an o;der form sinn has been replaced with a newer form, muid. Irish has no T-V distinction, with one possible except of using the plural second person pronoun sibh when speaking to a priest, under the assumption they could be carrying the Eucharist with them, thus you would also be addressing God.
A last, interesting feature, about Irish is the use of 'prepositional pronouns', or prepositions that are inflected for person. Thus, instead of using two words for 'at me', Irish only has one word for it, with the pronoun itself being inflected to convey the meaning. The inflections of ag ('at') can be seen in the table below:
Person Singular Plural
1 agam againn
2 agat agaibh
3 aige/aici acu
The forms of these prepositions and, indeed, even the number of them is highly variable between dialects. For instance, Connemara is famous for using 'am, 'ad, aige, aici, 'ainn, agaí, acub instead of the standard forms.
Modern Irish traditionally used the Latin alphabet without the letters j, k, q, w, x, y and z. However, some Gaelicised words use those letters: for instance, "jeep" is written as "jíp" (the letter v has been naturalised into the language, although it is not part of the traditional alphabet, and has the same pronunciation as "bh"). One diacritic sign, the acute accent (á é í ó ú), known in Irish as the síneadh fada ("long mark"; plural: sínte fada), is used in the alphabet. In idiomatic English usage, this diacritic is frequently referred to simply as the fada, where the adjective is used as a noun. The fada serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality. For example, in Munster Irish (Kerry), a is /a/ or /ɑ/ and á is /ɑː/ in "father", but in Ulster Irish (Donegal), á tends to be /æː/.
Traditional orthography had an additional diacritic – a dot over some consonants to indicate lenition. In modern Irish, the letter h suffixed to a consonant indicates that the consonant is lenited. Thus, for example, 'Gaelaċ' has become 'Gaelach'. This dot-above diacritic, called a ponc séimhithe or sí buailte (often shortened to buailte), derives from the punctum delens used in medieval manuscripts to indicate deletion, similar to crossing out unwanted words in handwriting today. From this usage it was used to indicate the lenition of s (from /s/ to /h/) and f (from /f/ to zero) in Old Irish texts. Lenition of c, p, and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of b, d, g, or m was left unmarked. Later, both buailte and postposed h were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l, n, and r, which could not be lenited. Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were written using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.
Today, Gaelic type and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e.g. the motto on the University College Dublin coat of arms or the symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, the Irish Defence Forces cap badge (Óglaiġ na h-Éireann). Postposed h has predominated due to its convenience and the lack of a character set containing the overdot before Unicode, although extending the latter method to Roman letters would theoretically have the advantage of making Irish texts significantly shorter, particularly as a large portion of the h-containing digraphs in a typical Irish text are silent (ex. the above Lughbhaidh, the old spelling of Louth, which would become Luġḃaiḋ).

Dialects and Sociolinguistics

Irish has three main dialectal areas, each which can be fairly divergent from the standard in terms of grammar (there is no standard phonology). These dialect areas are 'Munster', in the South, 'Connacht' in the west (and Meath, where farmers were transplanted from Connemara in the 1920s) and Ulster, which is, sadly, only extant in Donegal (Irish having died out in Tyrone and Antrim during the last century). The last dialect of Leinster Irish, Oriel Irish, was actually more accurately classified as a dialect of Ulster Irish.
There is a shift towards using Irish more in cities, though with major issues. For one, there is no standard dialect in the cities, and they often are a hodge-podge of mistakes that just coalesce together. Likewise, pronunciation of Irish is extremely different from English, unless you're in these cities. Here, pronunciation is often just directly imported from one language to the other (as is grammar, though they make a point to say 'Irish words', i.e. to avoid loanwords). This can make it difficult for native speakers to understand the learners from these areas, and vice-versa. There have been several articles written about this, such as this one, this one, and a list of studies here. It's also worth watching this Youtube video. I can't stress enough how different this form of the language is to that actually spoken by natives, again to the point where natives even struggle to understand it.
Written sample
Bhí fear in a chomhnuidhe ar an bhaile s'againne a dtugadh siad Micheál Ruadh air. Bhí teach beag cheann-tuigheadh aige ar fhód an bhealaigh mhóir agus bhí an donas air le séideadh anuas agus le deora anuas. Lá amháin da rabh Micheál ar an aonach, casadh duine de a chuid daoine muinteardha air nach bhfaca sé le tamall fada roimhe sin. "A Mhicheáil a chroidhe," arsa a dhuine muinteardha leis, "caidé mar tá an saoghal ag éirghe leat mar seo?" "Ó, go díreach go leath-mheasardha," arsa Micheál, "tá mé briste brúighte, tuirseach cráidhte, i n-amanna plúchta agus i n-amanna báidhte." (a Donegal dialectal text. audio can be found here; a whole set of stories can be found here
Spoken samples (native audio collected in County Cork) (Collections of audio recordings from the early 20th century of native speakers from lots of areas, including areas where Irish is no longer spoken)
Sources & Further reading
What now?
This thread is foremost a place for discussion. Are you a native speaker? Share your culture with us. Learning the language? Tell us why you chose it and what you like about it. Thinking of learning? Ask a native a question. Interested in linguistics? Tell us what's interesting about it, or ask other people. Discussion is week-long, so don't worry about post age, as long as it's this week's language.

Previous LotWs

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2020.06.14 01:29 JaimieMcEvoy My Quick Guide to Irish Research

I posted this in response to a question, but realized it might be helpful to many others.
The original question was about being descended from the O'Brien surname, but the answer applies to other Irish surnames.
I then explained a bit about Irish genealogy research.
(Slightly rewritten to be a bit more general).

Firstly, no, not everyone with the name is a descendant of their own particular surname origin. Some people were adopted, some were a family descendant but not a DNA descendant (i.e., illegitimate and secretly illegitimate), some simply picked a name, or changed a name. There was a study in the UK that looked at I think it was a dozen surnames that had a known original ancestor and single origin, usually of those who came over with William the Conqueror and adopted surnames in their new land. Of those names, one had 20% whose DNA did not go back to the original ancestor. If I remember correctly, the average was 12%, which I though was pretty good considering surnames a thousand years old.
The most recent and best researched source on surnames is the Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland (Oxford University Press, 2016). I'm fortunate enough to have a copy of it. For O'Brien, it says, "Many bearers of this name trace descent from Brian Boru, King of Munster and high king of Ireland in the 10th to 11th century". It seems they have concluded "many," which does not mean "all."
(I might do a quick look up for others who ask, but it is on an if I have the time basis).
Irish names are quite different than English surnames, in that most Irish names do have one origin. There are many different origins of names like Johnson and Miller, but typically, an Irish origin surname has only one origin (sometimes two, in different parts of the island), in a culture where name was important to the clan structure and identity.
You can resolve it by joining one or more DNA groups. I am a member of a DNA study group for my own surname, and it is quite amazing to see that we all have the same Y-DNA, which comes from the male line. Across centuries, with several spellings and pronunciations being developed, we can see our connection, and I can see that I truly do descend from that ancient line. You can search Google for DNA surname groups.

Irish Research:
Regarding Irish research, it used to often be said that it's impossible, that all the records burned in 1922 during the rebellion at the time, and the shelling of the building, where rebels were holed up. I still hear this sometimes. And it's true, records were destroyed going back to the 13th century.
Adding to that, for a long time the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland absolutely refused to cooperate with the amazing work of the Latter-Day Saints (Mormons).
And it used to be that the paper records that did exist with government were divided off into local offices, and you even had to go to them physically to get any information. About as inconvenient as possible.
But things have improved and continue to improve. Records have been recreated from other sources, and parish registers sitting in churches throughout the country have been copied.
I suggest to you the following resources. Not only for records, but for you to be able to contact knowledgeable people at these facilities.

The FamilySearch Wiki gives advice and where records can be found (those online and otherwise, and which online resources are free vs which charge a fee). This is the entry for Ireland, but be aware that there is usually an entry for specific counties, and sometimes towns, villages, or even parishes:

Be aware that far from everything is indexed on the Irish genealogy websites. But when you find something, and you have a parish, you can look for more in that parish register and those nearby. If you can't find your specific ancestor, sometimes you can find one of their siblings, and then go from there.

The National Library of Ireland has the most complete collection of Irish parish registers. For the parish registers, you will need to know the parish you are seeking. For your ancestor who was born in Cork in 1752, you have some information to start identifying parishes that were in existence in the area in that year. This is the main resource used by Ancestry, which has usefully indexed the records, but I can't tell if they did that well or not. You can then go to the National Library once you have a location, and then look at the parish register itself. The location given in the Ancestry records is sometimes the parish name, sometimes a village name, but you can often learn online or from local sources which parish(es) served that village and when, and try the FamilyWiki for that location.

You can enter place names on this website to match them to a modern parish. Be aware that not every parish goes back to your date of 1752 and beyond.

The National Archives of Ireland has different resources than does the National Library:

This site is free. For Irish research I often look at more than one site, as they often have different levels of completion of their indexing, and sometimes a person will turn up in one index but not another. If you go to parish registers, you will want to look at "current list of available registers," so if you don't get a result you can see if that parish has been included yet.

This site is quite popular. It is a paid site, but I find it useful. You can avoid the higher costs by getting a short subscription, even just one day (15 euros). I usually use it when I've got the time and make sure I know what I'm looking for to make the maximum use of a short one day or one month subscription. The cost of a one day subscription will be applied to the other longer subscriptions if you wind up deciding that. Be careful not to click on "automatic renewal" of your subscription unless you want that. I have sometimes found records on this site that I did not find on a free site.

Sometimes you can go fairly far in Irish research with the above sites.
Sometimes not.
But I do have a few bits of advice.
  1. Do some cluster research. Look at a whole immediate family. Sometimes you can learn a lot about a family by trying to learn about the whole family group, the Mom and Dad, and the brothers and sisters. Sometimes you can pin down dates. For example, if the birth dates for three children are in one parish, then in a different town for the next three, you know approximately when they moved. If you want to look for a marriage, and you see when they started having children, that gives you a ballpark. That sort of thing.
  2. Beware of similarities. And another reason to research whole immediate families, is it can tell you when you have the right family. It is entirely possible that James Doolan and Catherine O'Brien are actually three different couples who married at the same time and have their different children in a baptism register. (Priests often, but not always, sorted this out, for example by naming the parents of the parents, or something about them, like, James Doolan who lives by the lake).
  3. There are some serious limitations, still, compared to other areas. Irish baptisms don't say anything about children who were stillborn or died before baptism. Oddly, there are usually no burial records in a parish register, so it can be hard to know when someone died, and at what age.
  4. Talk to local people. There are genealogy organizations in Ireland nationally, in every county, and sometimes in towns and villages. There are local groups on facebook. There are often local historians or a seanchai (sen-a-key, a traditional Irish storyteller), or just a person who is known in the area as knowledgeable about the history. Many of those parishes have a website. So do many villages. Not always common in Ireland, but sometimes there is a local history book.
  5. Learn some history. When you know where your ancestors were and when, you can often learn about the social history of the place, and what events your ancestors might have lived through.

By the way, if you do continue to use Ancestry, I myself prefer FindMyPast for the British Islands and the island of Ireland. They simply tend to have more, I find them easier to use, and my searches more productive, though I do have subscriptions to both.

This has been a much longer answer than I though when I started out, on this lazy Saturday afternoon, and I apologize if its too much or I have bored you. If you make use of this, let me know.
In the meantime, good luck.
Jaimie McEvoy, New Westminster, British Columbia
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2020.05.31 00:15 GiversBot /u/PMnewb [REQ] was deleted from /r/borrow on 2020-05-30 (t3_dsie27 up 206.25 days, LONGTAIL, ACCOUNT DELETE/SHADOWBAN)

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2020.05.29 11:48 JamiroFan2000 The COMPLETE Year-By-Year Jamiroquai Tour History META Year #4 1995

Hello Jamiroquai!
This is the fourth META post for a new expansive series I have been wanting to do for some time for the subreddit, "The COMPLETE Year-By-Year Jamiroquai Tour History META'! This information will be eventually added to the Jamiroquai WIKI Page in it's entirety in the future but for the time being, it will be a recurring post series.
All of this information is being imparted to us from the Funkin Site fansite, massive thanks to my pal David Rowe for collecting all this important tour information during the nearly past +30 years of the band history, I hope everyone in the Reddit Jamily enjoys this & MUCH MORE TO COME! Cheers Reddit Jamily!


The COMPLETE Year-By-Year Jamiroquai Tour History META Year #4: 1995:

Date Of Gig Country Concert & Additional Info
24 Jan 95 (Tue) Germany, Hannover, Capitol No Info
26 Jan 95 (Thu) Germany, Bonn, Biskuithalle No Info
27 Jan 95 (Fri) France, Paris, Zenith No Info
28 Jan 95 (Sat) France, Clermont-Ferrand, Maison des Sports No Info
30 Jan 95 (Mon) France, Strasbourg, Salle des Fetes Schiltigheim No Info
01 Feb 95 (Wed) France, Paris, Zenith No Info
03 Feb 95 (Fri) Germany, Boblingen No Info
05 Feb 95 (Sun) Austria, Wien, Bank Austria Zelt Freakpower were special guests at this concert.
08 Feb 95 (Wed) Germany, Berlin, Huxley's Neue Welt No Info
09 Feb 95 (Thu) Germany, Munster *No Info
10 Feb 95 (Fri) Belgium, Brussels No Info
22 Feb 95 (Wed) Japan, Tokyo (Shibuya), Club Quattro No Info
23 Feb 95 (Thu) Japan, Aichi (Nagoya), Club Quattro No Info
24 Feb 95 (Fri) Japan, Osaka (Shinsaibashi), Club Quattro No Info
26 Feb 95 (Sun) Japan, Hokkaido (Sapporo), Factory Hall No Info
28 Feb 95 (Tue) Japan, Miyagi (Sendai), Sun Plaza No Info
01 Mar 95 (Wed) Japan, Tokyo (Shibuya), NHK Hall No Info
02 Mar 95 (Thu) Japan, Tokyo (Shinjuku), Liquid Room No Info
04 Mar 95 (Sat) Japan, Tokyo (Ebidu), The Garden Hall No Info
07 Mar 95 (Tue) Japan, Osaka, Kohsei Nenkin Kaikan Dai Hall No Info
09 Mar 95 (Thu) Japan, Osaka, IMP Hall No Info
10 Mar 95 (Fri) Japan, Aichi (Nagoya), Diamond Hall No Info
11 Mar 95 (Sat) Japan, Aichi (Nagoya), Diamond Hall No Info
13 Mar 95 (Mon) Japan, Hukuoka (Hakata), Hukuoka Sun Palace No Info
14 Mar 95 (Tue) Japan, Hiroshima, Yuubin Chokin Hall No Info
16 Mar 95 (Thu) Japan, Tokyo (Ebidu), The Garden Hall No Info
17 Mar 95 (Fri) Japan, Tokyo (Ebidu), The Garden Hall No Info
18 Mar 95 (Sat) Japan, Tokyo (Gotanda), Yuuport Kan-i Hoken Hall No Info
23 Mar 95 (Thu) Australia, Melbourne, The Metro No Info
24 Mar 95 (Fri) Australia, Adelaide, Liberty No Info
26 Mar 95 (Sun) Australia, Sydney, The Metro No Info
27 Mar 95 (Mon) Australia, Sydney, The Metro No Info
28 Mar 95 (Tue) Australia, Sydney, The Metro No Info
01 Jun 95 (Thu) USA, Los Angeles, American Legion Hall No Info
08 Jun 95 (Thu) Sweden, Skeppsholmen, Skeppsholmen Jazz Festival No Info
20 Jun 95 (Tue) UK, London (Camden), MTV Most Wanted (tv) Performed: Space Cowboy, Stillness in Time, Our Time is Coming
22 Jun 95 (Thu) UK, London (Clapham), The Grand No Info
24 Jun 95 (Sat) UK, Glastonbury, Glastonbury Festival Performed on the 'Pyramid Stage.' The festival was held over three days and Jamiroquai performed on the Saturday afternoon.
29 Jun 95 (Thu) UK, London, Top Of The Pops (tv) (broadcast date) Performed: Stillness In Time
30 Jun 95 (Fri) Germany, Munster, Freibad No Info
08 Jul 95 (Sat) France, Belfort, Eurockeennes de Belfort Festival No Info
12 Jul 95 (Wed) Switzerland ,Montreux, Stravinski Auditorium, Montreux Jazz Festival Performed: Revolution, Light Years, Who The Funk Do You Think You Are, Scam, Emergency On Planet Earth, Journey To Arnhemland, Sunny, Stillness in Time, Just Another Story, Don't Stop The Feeling, Space Cowboy, Kids, When You Gonna Learn/Our Time Is Coming/Whatever The Fuck (medley).
14 Jul 95 (Fri) Netherlands, North Sea Jazz Festival No Info
16 Jul 95 (Sun) Germany, Cologne, Rheinparkweg No Info
29 Jul 95 (Sat) UK, London, Highbury Fields, Jazz Izz Outdoor concert also featuring: D-Influence, War, Brand New Heavies, James Taylor Quartet and Maceo Parker.
05 Sep 95 (Tue) USA, Boston, MA, Axis No Info
08 Sep 95 (Fri) USA, Philadelphia, PA, The Trocadero Theater No Info
09 Sep 95 (Sat) USA, Manhattan Center As part of the CMJ Music Marathon Conference this gig was originally scheduled to be at the 'The Supper Club' but it seems that it was moved to the Manhattan Center. Guru's Jazzmatazz were the opening act.
10 Sep 95 (Sun) USA, Chicago, IL, The Metro No Info
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2020.05.24 19:00 thefeckamIdoing Godred Olufssun: the man who brought the English to Ireland...

Guðrøðr Óláfsson, aka Godred Olafssun, was a man who, after a eventful and violent life, ended up being the crucial and overlooked facilitator, without whom the forces of Henry II would never have arrived in Ireland.
He is the man who, literally, made it possible for the English to invade Ireland.
Yet his story, for me, not only explains why he did, but also grants us a fascinating insight into this amazing time period.
What follows is, by necessity, only an overview, with a few sources at the end.
Background: The Crovan Dynasty
If I had my way I would talk endlessly about Godred’s amazing dynasty- how his grandfather somehow managed to crawl out of the massacre of Stamford Bridge, one of the few survivors of Hadradar’s failed attempt to take England in 1066.
How this young mercenary (named Godred Crovan or Godred Clawhand) born on the Isle of Mann to a amazing mixture of Norse and Irish bloodlines, had returned and lived there until his patron and patron’s son (rulers of Mann) had died whereupon Crovan took over the Kingdom and turned Mann into the paramount naval superpower of its age.
Under Crovan, Mann not only subjugated much of coastal Scotland, they also took Dublin from the Norse-Irish and confounded & defeated the Normans with alarming regularity. It also monopolised the principle trading routes across the Irish Sea making it an economic as well as naval superpower (which coupled with a campaign of ethnic cleansing on Mann itself allowed him to control the island with near impunity).
The story then gets more interesting with Godred Crovan’s death and the rivalry of his three sons to control Mann. It had caused the youngest son, one Óláfr (Olaf) to flee the chaos caused by his father’s death and to be raised in the court of Henry I, king of England. When he came of age, Olaf was able to return and claim Mann.
It was his death that brings his son, our very own Godfred Olafssun, into this tale.
Context: the Madness of the Irish Sea
Before we start however, it is vital you understand one crucial thing. Olafssun was born into a fluid and dynamic world of many states. It is easy for us to look at a map and use titles such as ‘England’ and ‘Ireland’ and ‘Scotland’ and assume these were geopolitical entities. They were not.
Rather see that the only geopolitical reality was the Irish Sea itself. Around the 12th Century this stretch of water linked a bewildering variety of Kingdoms, regions, tribes and ethnicities together, all of whom were seeking to create stable nations, all of whom had borders that waxed and waned with the passing of the years.
We use Ireland/England/Scotland to help US navigate this time period. At the time however Olafssun would have used other geopolitical titles- Leinster, Munster, Cinn Tire (Kintyre); Argyll; Tír Eoghain (Tyrone); Galloway; Arainn (Arran); Connacht; Mann; Duiblinn (Dublin); Skye; Rìoghachd nan Eilean (the Kingdom of the Isles) Gwynedd, Alba, Pembroke and many, many more.
Cambro-Norman’s, Saxons, Scots, Irish, Norse-Irish, Welsh, Norwegian, Danish, Anglo-Norman’s and other tribes mingled, intermarried, fought and killed one another along the waterway.
It is a chaotic era, where the only true power was control of the sea. Then, as now, maritime power was indicative of true geopolitical power, and this had been the situation for a century or more; these micro-nations waged constant sea based warfare upon one another, and the closest ‘super power’ was the distant Kings of Norway, who could supply the only external navy able to match the smorgasbord of competing nations.
Becoming King of Mann
Godred, our hero, had been born on Mann sometime in the mid to late 1130’s. He was raised to be heir of the island kingdom, a young prince of a petty kingdom. His first known task as a royal prince was to sail, aged we think about 16 or so, to Norway and there present the tribute the Lords of Mann payed the Norwegian Kings, sometime in 1152.
While he was away a dynastic dispute broke out over his homeland between his father Olaf and the children of Olaf’s older brother, Godred’s cousins, known collectively as the Haraldssonar.
The three nephews of King Olaf had sailed to Mann in force and had demanded Olaf turn over half the kingdom to them as part of their inheritance as members of the Crovan dynasty. Olaf responded, as he always did, by trying to negotiate a settlement. Olaf was by all accounts a ruler who sought to legitimise his kingdom via the rule of law. His nephews represented a more violent attitude towards politics. They murdered him and claimed Mann together.
Olaf had married the daughter of Fergus of Galloway, and Godred was the product of this Union of the Gallowanian and Mann dynasties. This wasn’t JUST a marriage however, Olaf of Mann and Fergus of Galloway had allied much more deeply- so much so that there existed in the Isle of Mann a sizeable contingent of supporters of Olaf who had moved there from Galloway in the north.
Why? Because with Mann’s support, Galloway was able to resist the kings of Scotland from absorbing his lands under their control.
When the Haraldssonar took over then, they began a systematic campaign of ethnic cleansing, attempting to kill or drive off the residents who had come from Galloway; no sooner had they established a firm grip on the island then they launched a pre-emotive strike upon Galloway itself. A large fleet of Mannian ships landed and while not able to conquer it, it is clear they crippled Fergus ability to support his grandson, Godred.
The young Godred however could call upon someone else for support. The Norwegian King, Inge Crookback, to whom he had just given tribute to, was more than happy to support Godred with a small fleet and troops. It wasn’t enough to take back his homeland but it was enough to grant him support in the eyes of many of his peers.
With this Norwegian fleet he crossed the North Sea to the Orkneys, where he was recognised as rightful king by the lords there and given more troops.
At the head of this armada then, Young Godred invaded Mann; where he battled and overcame his cousins, killing one and blinding the other two. He had regained his birthright and by 1153 was now Lord of Mann.
He was a young man, with a established record for decisive action and a willingness to resort to violence, and who now ran the most important island in the Irish Sea with a powerful fleet at his disposal.
He was plunged immediately into the volatile politics of the era.
The Irish Dimension
Around 1154 the title of High King of Ireland was held by the elderly Toirrdelbach Ua Conchibair, King of Connacht. He possessed a decent army and by all accounts he also owned vast fleet and was a naval based power.
The King of Crnél nEógain, one Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn, decided to press his claim for the title of High King. The conflict led to one of the most overlooked battles of the 12th century. Two vast fleets met just off the Inishowen coast, to the far north of Ireland.
Here Muirchertach's naval forces were supposedly mercenaries for Galloway, Arran, Kintyre, mainland Scotland and Mann. In other words, Godred led his navy alongside a vast array of Scottish allies, in support of Muirchertach's claim for High King.
Muirchertach lost the battle, but Toirrdelbach's naval forces seem to have been reduced to a point of being unable to aid him. His rival now weakened, this allowed Muirchertach march on Dublin, take the city and effectively take the title of High King.
However this is where things get really complicated.
Godred: King of Dublin
There now follows a sequence of events which the main documents which provide evidence cannot agree on dates at all, so what follows is speculative based upon the most probable sequence of events.
There seems to have developed a complex relationship between Godred, Muirchertach and a Scottish warlord called Somerled.
Somerled is a mysterious figure fills the model of ‘warlord despot’ with great ease. Originating from Norse Gaelic stock, he had risen from utter obscurity to become King of Kintyre; in his struggles to oppose David I of Scotland he had sought out the help of King Olaf and had married his daughter, making him Godred’s brother in law.
Godred and Somerled had battled together for Muirchertach in the naval conflict, but that did not mean they were all allied. Nor that Muirchertach’s dominion over Dublin was secure.
Dublin wasn’t an Irish town after all. At best you could call it Norse-Irish, and the residents (Ostmen) sought to either choose their own rulers or if possible, invite in a powerful ruler of Ostman stock, even if it meant turning against their new King. It was this that led the Ostmen of Dublin to invite Godred to become their king.
Godred seems happy to obliged and appears by all accounts to have accepted the title, sometime we think between 1154-1156. Muirchertach, obviously, objects to this and sends a force, supposedly of around 3,000 horsemen, to reacquire Dublin.
While full details are very sketchy we think Muirchertach mustered his force somewhere in the Boyne valley, where they proceeded south devastating the land, before Godred and the Dubliners repulsed his army, forcing it to retire.
However Muirchertach had Diarmait Mac Murchada, designated King of Leinster at the time, campaign in the region, destroying crops and harrying the Dubliners. In time, the residents of the city agreed to negotiate peace with Diarmait, recognising him as their overlord and ending Godred’s brief tenure as King.
A possible sweetener to the deal was Godfred was married to Findguala Nic Lochlainn, Muirchertach’s Grand-daughter, but whatever the case Godred’s ‘rule’ over Dublin seems to have lasted only a brief while. And his failure to secure the port seems to have left him somewhat over-extended.
This weakness appears to have been noticed by Muirchertach who, probably unhappy at Godred’s adventurism, possibly informed Somerled, who in turn saw his chance to strike at Godred.
The War with Somerled
Around 1155 Somerled attempted a coup against Godred, trying to place his own son upon the throne of Mann (Somerlad’s wife being Godred’s sister granting the son a dynastic link to the Crovan dynasty and claim to Mann).
Godred managed to get wind of this coup and raised his fleet. This led to the Battle of Epiphany, where two vast fleets clashed off the coast of Isley in Scotland (Somerled had at least 80 ships on his side alone).
The battle was inconclusive and eventually Somerled and Godred negotiated a peace settlement where they divided to the Kingdom of the Isles between them. Somerled was not content with the peace settlement of 1156 and as such in 1158 he invaded again and this time drove Godred into exile.
We can reconstruct that in the chaos that followed Godred was able to have allies from Orkney fight for him, but Somerlad held on and Godred was forced to flee.
Exile: the wandering king
Now an exile, Godred travelled to find someone to support his bid to reclaim Mann. The first port of call was to travel via the many petty kingdoms of Wales into England, (although one source suggests he had to travel to the continent), to seek aid from the most powerful of the regions kings- Henry, Lord of the vast Angevin Empire.
While Henry seemed sympathetic to Godred, he offered him no help at all (Henry having no naval forces at his disposal and being at the time focused far more on Normandy), forcing Godred to seek help elsewhere. He then travels to Scotland where he hoped King Malcolm, who was hostile to Somerled, would support him.
Malcolm was even more sympathetic than Henry II and certainly agreed in principle. But Somerled was able to read the politics of the Scottish court much better than Godred, and nominally swore allegiance to Malcolm, ending any possibility of the Scots providing Olafssun with any aid.
Still Godred did not give up. He crossed the North Sea and sought the aid of his old ally, Inge Crookback, King of the Norwegians. And it is now that Godred’s tale takes an odd turn...
Norway, at this time, was in the midst of what is nicely called the ‘civil wars era’, an age of complicated dynastic feuds where rulership was never secured for long.
King Inge had ruled Norway since he was a child, alongside his two brothers, Sigurd and Øystein. This three way split lasted fairly well but Inge had decided to strike out against his brothers and had killed them both.
When Godred arrived in Norway to seek help from Inge, he found himself embroiled right in the middle of the feud between Inge and his nephew, Hákor Sigurdssun.
As former King of Mann and the Island’s, Godred was treated with the same level of respect as the Scots and English had given him, but with the crucial difference being Inge desired he stick around and prove his loyalty to Norway’s king.
Added to that was the salient fact that Inge had no ships or troops to give to him; the civil war was dominating all such things. Godred now threw himself into local politics and it is said that in 1161, when King Inge faced Hákor at the Battle of Oslo, Godred commanded 1500 of the Kings men.
Which was awkward because, by all accounts, Godred swapped sides during the battle, brought those 1500 over to Hákor’s army and helped kill King Inge.
Certainly Godred was now up to his neck in the politics of Norway and there is some evidence that he was present at the coronation of the five-year old king, Magnûs Erlingsson. But he couldn’t get enough troops to return home. Somerled was too entrenched.
But then, in 1164, after an exile of about 6 long years news came that Somerled was dead. Godred acted swiftly and returned.
By the time he got there, the bloody politics of Mann had seen rulership go to Somerled’s son, before Godred’s younger brother, Rǫgnvaldr, had taken the title.
According to Icelandic sources, Godred sailed in, overthrew his brother, had him ‘mutilated’ and blinded (the exact nature of the mutilation sounds like castration or limb loss) and made himself Lord of the Kingdom again, placating the Somerled factions nominally under his control by returning to the power sharing agreement of 1156.
Godred was now back in charge of his fractious and unstable realm, surrounded by larger and more unstable neighbours. The interconnected nature of the Irish Sea meant that quickly he was returned to the confusing geopolitical reality of the waterway.
And since his was a naval based power, it was inevitable that he would end up again embroiled increasingly with the other dominant sea power- the Irish.
The Irish Endgame
Godred then was nominally King of Mann and the Isles, which was in practice split between him and Somerled’s family, but possessing a powerful fleet which was the largest in the Irish Sea.
He had been back only two years when his old friend/enemy High King Muirchertach was slain and the title of High King immediately came up for grabs. There were two rivals for it: King Diarmait Mac Murchada, and his rival, Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, designated King of Connacht.
(Worth reminding ourselves- Ruaidhrí’s father had been the Irish High King who Godred and Somerled’s fleets had helped defeat to aid Muirchertach (technically Godred’s late grandfather-in-Law) while Diarmait was the man who had possibly taken Dublin from Godred); just in case we forget how small this world actually was)
The sequence of events between Diarmait and Rory are fairly well know. Diarmait was defeated and fled into exile, where he followed Godred’s route some years earlier into England. Here the Irish King came to seek aid from Henry II, who, as he had with Godred, agreed in principle to support the Irishman but had no way of getting troops over to Ireland.
Diarmait then sought out the aid of a small cabal of Welsh based Cambro-Norman mercenary landowners who were experienced in Irish/Irish-Norse Sea based warfare and who agreed to aid him. Their price seems to have been Diarmait agreeing that the Cambro-Norman’s could claim the ports of Waterford and Wexford in return for fighting for him.
(I go into detail about this in a separate post )
What followed was a messy bushfire war; almost in-spite of themselves the cambro-Norman’s managed to take Dublin. Here, Diarmait dies and the leading mercenary commander, Richard de Clare, claims the title of High King based upon his marriage with Diarmait’s daughter. This was not a serious claim, but was done in order to maintain a legal justification for the mercenaries to hold Waterford and/or Wexford after the fighting was over.
The Irish, and King Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, were having none of it, and Rory built up his forces in order to crush this minor annoyance once and for all. While he was doing so however, a small event that would change the course of Irish history forever took place.
The Fall of The Fleet of Dublin
When Diarmait was exiled, Kingship of Dublin fell to one Ascall mac Ragnaill meic Torcaill, supposedly a leading member of the Ostman Dublin community and possibly one of the men who had invited Godfred to become King of the city a decade or so previously.
Ascall (and by extension Dublin) had proven themselves to be loyal supporters of Rory since he took the title. But the sudden attack on the city had surprised the residents. Understand how significant the attack in Dublin was. The mercenaries has began by taking Wexford, then Waterford and now Dublin- three of the main east coast ports.
They had gained this foothold by using/hiring what ships they could but in all cases their numbers were quite small. The first wave had seen only 500 Cambo-Norman’s arrive (where Diarmait had doubled that number with his own supporters). The second wave led by De Clare was larger, maybe 1000 men, but the logistics of it were so difficult that De Clare had to take out a loan from Jewish moneylenders to afford the invasion fleet.
Indeed, my personal belief (not corroborated) was that the reason De Clare married Diarmait’s daughter after he had arrived and not before he left, was perhaps due to there being uncertainty over him being able to arrive at all.
Whatever the case, it is also clear that even after they took Waterford and Wexford, the small mercenary force did NOT have a large body of ships at their disposal. Which possibly explains away their attack upon Dublin.
One, they took an inland route to get to the port, not the easier method of sailing there or taking an army supported by a fleet up the coast road (which was what Rory had expected), suggesting they didn’t have access to ships.
Secondly, it opens the possibility that they wanted Dublin to get access to her fleet, the largest in Ireland at the time.
The Cambro-Norman’s however were still land based and this became the flaw in their plan; whatever the reason to match in Dublin, they had taken the city by land, leaving Ascall and his mighty Dublin fleet free to escape... which is what they did.
Straight to Godred.
While the exact location of where the Dublin fleet fled is contested (some saying they went as far as Orkney) it would seem unlikely given the short time elapsed in the following sequence of events they would that far; Mann was able to allow the Dublin fleet regroup close at hand and Godfred and Ascall probably knew each other. The Isle of Mann was also close enough to warrant an easy return, while maintaining communications with Ireland, so it is reasonable to assume the Dublin fleet sailed to Godred.
All they had to do was hang on until the Irish consolidated their forces and drove out the occupiers.
And yet, here, the Dubliners then made a massive mistake. High King Ruaidhrí was trying to organise his forces to besiege Dublin, but Ascall wasn’t willing to wait. He unilaterally returned to Dublin with his fleet and, in May 1171, attacked the mercenaries there. The attack was an utter failure and Ascall was killed and his fleet destroyed/captured.
The High King now has an issue- if he marched an army to Dublin to besiege it, the mercenaries there could escape by sea back down to Waterford to reconsolidate their power. It was for this reason that the High King instructed the Archbishop of Dublin to contact Godred with an offer.
This is why when the Irish brought a massive force to besiege the foreign occupied city, Godred arrived in Dublin bay with his powerful fleet, helping to place a noose around the Welsh mercenaries, which (the plan went) would end this small, annoying, war once and for all.
The siege, however, failed, and the Irish High King now found himself unable to effectively deal with this matter. Desperate for a solution he sought the one remaining man who could aid him deal with these foreigners. The great Plantagenet King, Henry II.
There was just one problem. Henry II didn’t have a fleet. He couldn’t get to Ireland to ‘deal’ with the men nominally under his control. The Irish needed to get him here. And there was only one man who could facilitate it- Godred.
While it appears Godred was possibly reluctant at first, given the support of the church and possibly with some financial incentive, Godred offered his fleet to the English.
The arrival of Henry
Henry was not a man to do things in a half hearted way. He was, at this time, at the height of his powers. It is always easy to assume Henry was the first ‘English king’ to invade Ireland, but its also untrue.
Henry rules a vast Empire, has been completely focused on curbing his rival the King of France; had spent a large amount of time taking over Brittany, and by all accounts was intending to divide his huge empire between his sons (with the likes of Richard gaining Aquitaine while his older brother Henry (Young Henry as he was known, and whose coronation Godred had possibly attended), gaining England).
His interest in Ireland was predicated upon simple politics: it was outside his area of control. De Clare and his men were operating beyond his reach and it was possible that they could create an independent state (while De Clare’s claim to High Kingship was tenuous at best, it remained a possibility). Henry therefore sought to bring enough men who crush his errant Cambro-Norman’s.
Only Godred’s fleet was large enough to facilitate the movement of the King. He made sure it was at Henry’s disposal and ferried across to Waterford a huge force. The best way to understand the shock and awe Henry inspired is to consider this.
For two years Ireland had been plagued by a vicious bushfire war caused by the fighting prowess of at most 1500 of these men.
Henry now turned up with a force 4,000 men at arms, 200 knights (and horses) and even a series of siege engines (in case DeClare decided to hold out in Dublin). It was, without doubt, the manifestation of staggering amounts of power.
Godred facilitates this transport and witnessed something immediately. Without making a single threat, without any attack, this show of force intimidated the Normans in Waterford. It also intimidated the Kings of Desmond who swore allegiance to Henry at once (possibly in the hope that Henry would not attack them) before Henry travels to Dublin.
Here Henry made his true powerplay, not only gaining submission from De Clare but also in quick order, the Kings of Leinster, Meath, Ulster, Airgílla (Oriel) and Breifne. He coupled this show of force with a surprise weapon- the authority to ‘reform’ the church in Ireland.
Using this as his basis, Henry began the ‘conquest’ of Ireland. He used the Church to press a claim for overlordship of the entire island, which while not enforced by arms, was enforced by rule of (his) law.
For Godred however, this capitulation, coupled with the legitimacy granted Henry by the Pope made his next decision an easy one to make.
Henry was, in effect, trapped in Ireland. He would need to leave. Godred could withdraw his ships and strand him there.
But the Kingdom of Mann faced the massive Plantagenet Empire now being effective rulers of the Irish Sea. The Scots were cowed and with Godred’s fleets help, the Welsh would be curtailed also. A new world order was taking place before his eyes.
Mann now had a choice- remain part of the chaotic world that had seen him lose Mann twice, be exiled twice, and endlessly partake in chaotic warfare... or ally with a strong, stable and powerful regime who were looking for a fleet to facilitate control of the Irish Sea.
Godred Olafson, adventurer, became a happy client to the Plantagenet regime and it is now his influence on Ireland really grew, facilitating and aiding the conquest of the region.
The Son In Law
A measure of the new accord Godred entered into can be found in the marriage of his daughter Affrica to a newly arrived adventurer, John de Courcy.
6 years after Henry’s brief visit, Godred aided John with his planned conquest of Ulaid; it was Godred’s ships who brought John to Carlingford; it was his ships who kept De Courcy supplied and it was most probably Godfred who facilitated his domination and conquest of Antrim and Down.
Understand, as the Anglo-Norman’s has began to expand their control beyond Dublin, the most obvious target was the Kingdom of Airgialla, the Ulster based petty kingdom that forms much of Louth today; De Courcy leapfrogged this region to focus on Ulaid, effectively making it an isolated ‘colony’. He filled it with colonists from Cumbria (located just the other side of Mann, and a region of England, where the ‘saxons’ had long intermarried and had strong ties to the Norse-Irish (at its height, the Ostmen of Dublin had taken the region in their attempt to link Dublin with York)).
The union with Godred’s daughter also meant that while a foreigner, De Courcy was now able to call upon and be part of the long standing family ties in the region; he was supported by Irishmen who were opposed to the Uí Neíll, many of whom he was now related to by marriage.
While it can be seen that De Courcy was an Englishman invader subjugating the Irish people, he was also now part of a series of local dynastic feuds, supported by the most powerful sea power, and behind the narrative of England invading Ireland, there was an equally valid one of this being all about local Irish/Irish Sea politics written large.
Certainly, beyond this union, becoming allies with the rule of Henry II saw Godred and Mann enter a period of stability and safety it had never known. Godred’s ships were the early backbone of the conquest, moving men and resources across the waters, and when, for example, Henry made granted Dublin to the men of Bristol (forcing a mass expulsion of the Ostmen residents), it had been Godfred’s ships who had provided initial protection for them.
In all ways that count, it can be observed without the crucial support on Godred Olafsun, the English invasion of Ireland and the systematic way they consolidated power along the East Coast, would never have taken place.
When he died on St Patrick’s Island (a small island just off the coast of Mann, probably the location of the royal residence), in 1187, Godred was around 50 years old.
His life had been extraordinary, worthy of a saga or two, but it was the events of the latter part of his life, and his role in facilitating the conquest of Ireland, that marks him out beyond a mere footnote in history.
The benefits to Mann for his decision to support the Plantagenet King is proven by the long, peaceful and successful rule of his son.
The above is my own take on the man and his times. I usually specialise in the wars of the Tudor period, so I will accept correction by those with greater expertise in 12th century Ireland.
Sources: *Parker, P (2014). ‘The Northman’s Fury: a History if the Viking World’
Duffy, S (1994). ‘Pre-Norman Dublin: Capital of Ireland’; History Ireland; December.
Duffy, S (1996). "Ulster and the Irish Sea Region in the Twelfth Century" (PDF). Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement.
McDonald, R. Andrew (2008). ‘Manx kingship in its Irish Sea setting, 1187-1229. King Rognvaldr and the Crovan dynasty’
Curtis, E (1988). ‘Norse Dublin’ Dublin Historical Revord. June 1988*
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2020.05.18 14:24 FEshippingBot A Tale Of Two Princesses

Read here
by Asdrator
Ishtar has found a girlfriend online, and plans to meet her in the city of Munster for their first real date. The only catch in the plan is her mother Hilda, who plans to have her meet a suitor on the same day. With the help of her brother Ishtore, Ishtar makes a plan to sneak out and meet up with her girlfriend.
Words: 1613, Chapters: 1/1, Language: English
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2020.05.17 20:20 phillygoat [NM] NIB Laco Munster, 42mm Type A Flieger - 60 spots at $11 each with no spot limit

Item Name: NIB Laco Munster, 42mm Type A Flieger
Price: $660
# of Spots: 60
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Price Justification: New at Amazon for $1142.03
Price Justification: New at Long Island Watch $1119
Price Justification: New at Laco $1190
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Description: Up for raffle is a Laco Munster, 42mm automatic flieger. Condition is unworn/new with original box and undated warranty card. The Laco Munster model was inspired by the original WWII Laco Pilot watches. Inside is a Swiss Laco 24 automatic (self-winding) movement. The thermal blued hands and the dial markers are treated with SuperLuminova C3 for excellent readability in the dark. Like the original WWII Laco watches, there is no date window. Features a scratch resistant sapphire front crystal with an engraved steel case back. Like the original Luftwaffe models, the unique Laco case has FL23883 engraved on the 9:00 side.

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2020.05.15 17:00 Chi_Rho88 Today, In The Roman Church, It's The Memorial Of Saint Cárthach Of Lismore.

Born in the middle of the 6th Century, in an area of Ireland which is located today in County Kerry, his name re-enters the history books showing him to have become the Abbot of the monastery in Rahan in County Offaly. The 'Annals of Ulster' documents his expulsion from the monastery in A.D. 635, most likely due to conflicting views surrounding the dating of Easter; which was a big issue within the Irish Church at the time. He travelled south, and established a new abbey in Lismore in County Waterford; and it was here he spent the rest of his life. The abbey he built went on to be regarded as one of the greatest in the land, and was regularly doted upon by the Kings of Munster.
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2020.04.29 13:19 grebeulous The Pentagon Challenge - complete!

The Pentagon Challenge - complete!
Hello all!
A post chronicling my quarantine journey from Sunday League Footballer through to Champions League winner in every continent! Career landmarks are noted below:



In terms of detail - this took about 20.5 years to achieve in the game. It was not all plain sailing - some of that story told below! It's a bit of a slog to get to the level of team that gives you a decent chance on winning anything! As soon as I won a Champions League I resigned and looked for the first big job that would come up in a new continent. I managed to get sacked just once - though I think I would have been sacked a couple more times had I not jumped before being pushed!
The easiest Champions Leagues to win were the UEFA, AFC and CAF ones in my journey. The CONCACAF is, in my opinion, significantly easier with a Mexican team rather than an MLS team! As is the Libertadores with a Brazilian/Argentine team - but I fancied using both Toronto and Atletico Nacional as they were the teams whose jobs came up when I'd resigned.

My career and win percentage, and reasons for leaving:

1. Cobh Ramblers - 55% win percentage - 41 games won, 12 drawn, 21 lost
Devastatingly missed out on promotion in this first job. Second season did not start as well as I'd hoped so resigned after the board decided not to fund my coaching courses!
2. Xinjiang Sport Lottery FC - 8% win percentage, 1 game won, 4 drawn, 7 lost
An extremely ill fated first spell in China. Turns out my brand of Wing Play to midget Chinese strikers left something to be desired. Jumped before being pushed.
3. Gap Connah's Quay - 50% win percentage - 29 games won, 15 drawn, 13 lost
A decent spell in Wales. Qualification for my first continental tournament in the Europa Conference League, in which I failed to make the group stages, but gained some reputation in completing some coaching courses.
4. Hull City AFC - 39% win percentage - 11 won, 9 drawn, 8 lost
An enjoyable spell. Hull were rock bottom when I joined and I promised, and delivered, mid table obscurity. Departed 5 games before the end of the season as there was absolutely no prospect of making the playoffs.
5. AC Milan - 48% win percentage - 15 won, 9 draw, 7 lost
Despite having no competition success other than winning the Irish Munster Senior Cup - AC Milan were obviously impressed with my bang average career to date and overpromises in my interview - so took up my first job at a historically big club. Unfortunately, a manager of my prowess was always bound to have problems with winning the dressing room. That coupled with a predictably poor league performance signalled only one thing. I jumped before being pushed.
6. The New Saints - 100% win percentage - 1 win, 0 draws, 0 lost
Compelled by the fact that TNS were already well clear at the top of the Welsh leagues and I hadn't yet won a league - I walked into the TNS boardroom and promised them the title. I duly delivered and resigned after winning the league, which just so happened to be 1 game after taking charge.
7. Toronto FC - 57% win percentage - 63 won, 23 drawn, 23 lost
A really enjoyable spell but MLS rules are ridiculously convoluted and took a while to get used to. Use those DP slots wisely! Fixture congestion in certain parts of the seasons are ridiculous and make winning the continental competition hard work. Resigned as soon as the CONCACAF Champs league was won.
8. Guangzhou Evergrande - 77% win percentage - 63 won, 9 drawn, 9 lost
Guangzhou are one of the giants in China so if you can get the job you should be able to deliver the AFC Champions League quickly. One tip - AFC has a special foreign player slot for Asian players so you can take advantage of having a decent Korean/Japanese player as an extra foreign secret weapon for those all important continental fixtures.
9. Atletico Nacional - 72% win percentage - 138 won, 35 drawn, 17 lost
This was a really enjoyable spell too. It is a bit like being PSG - your real competition comes in the continental competitions and I found that I kept being knocked out by Flamengo! Got there in the end and unearthed some incredible Colombian wonderkids, who I thought might come in handy in my next role, after winning the Libertadores...
10. Tottenham - 42% win percentage - 9 won, 3 drawn, 9 lost
...after languishing in 14th place at the January break I took up the Spurs job, promising a Europa League finish. I raided Atletico Nacional for my "wonderkids", who as it turns out were not up to Premier League standard. Promptly sacked.
11. Bayern Munich - 71% win percentage - 103 won, 25 drawn, 16 lost
Uefa Champions League delivered a lot quicker than I thought I would. The most monstrous team in the world by the time I resigned.
12. Kaizer Chiefs - 87% win percentage - 50 won, 4 drawn, 3 lost
A procession. Went on holiday for most of the second season just to get the challenge over and done with. Retired as manager after winning every competition.

Overall stats:

Overall final profile:

Overall landmarks:


All in all - this is a great challenge for anyone - though not for the faint hearted! It takes a lot of time and dedication - relentless winning can get tiring. I'm a seasoned pro at the FM/CM series having played every iteration since 97/98, and whilst it takes a while to get going - it's a great quarantine challenge!
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2020.04.28 20:23 EnGoodz ❗ The Jesuit Agenda COV-ID2020

The Jesuit Agenda COV-ID2020

‘ID2020’ is an alliance of Jesuit public-private partners including the Jesuit UN creating an electronic Roman ID program that uses generalized vaccination (Catholic baptism and conversion) as a platform for digital identity.

ID2020 Summit UN Hq: ‘UN Wants a [Catholic] Universal Digital ID for Your Data’ (2017)

ID2020: Rockefeller & Microsoft Identification Technology – Mark of the Beast to Buy and Sell

“ID2020 is a public-private partnership accelerating technology to ensure that every person on the planet has a unique digital identity as part of their basic human rights … 501(c)3 [not under Jesuit Justinian-Admiralty-Maritime Law] non-profit bridging the ‘FinTech’ and blockchain communities with organizations like the United Nations, working to ensure that every person’s right to identity is protected.”

About – Rome’s Final Image of the Mark of the Beast:

Alliance Partners – Jesuit, Knight of Malta, Opus Dei Controlled; ‘Rockefeller Foundation,’ ‘Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance,’ Microsoft, etc.:

The Alliance ‘Manifesto’ – Working with Literal Jesuits

“In 2018, ID2020 Alliance Partners, working in partnership with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), drafted a formal articulation of our perspective on ethical approaches to digital identity. The landmark ID2020 Alliance Manifesto below lays out these shared principles and forms a starting point to guide the future of digital identity globally.”

Filippo Grandi
~ Director – ‘United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ (UNHCR) (2016-Present)
~ Diplomat – ‘United Nations Official of Italy’
~ Jesuit Educated – ‘Pontifical Gregorian University’ – Founded by Jesuit Pseudo-Founder Ignatius Loyola, S.J. – 1st Jesuit College
~ Member – Opus Dei’s Pilgrim Society’s ‘World Economic Forum’ – ‘Global Future Council on the Future of the Humanitarian System’ (2019)

Notable Leadership and Directors – Jesuit Temporal Coadjutors:

Garry Conille
~ Board Member – ID2020
~ Former Prime Minister – Haiti
~ Former Director – ‘Africa Regional Office’ – ‘UN Office for Project Services’ (UNOPS)
~ Former Chief of Staff – Jesuit Georgetown’s U.S. President Bill Clinton – ‘Special Envoy’ for Haiti’s Reconstruction Efforts
~ Jesuit Educated – Jesuit ‘College Canado-Haitien’ – ‘Brothers of the Sacred Heart’ (Created by the Jesuits)

Elana Broitman
~ Board Member – ID2020
~ Jesuit Educated – Jesuit ‘University of Fribourg’ (‘College Saint-Michel’)

Meredith Kravitz
~ Ecosystem Manager – ID2020
~ Jesuit Educated – Jesuit ‘Concordia University’ (Loyola College)

Oliver Bussmann
~ Board Member – ID2020
~ Jesuit Educated – Jesuit ‘University of Munster (‘Jesuiten-Kolleg Munster’)
~ Opus Dei (Jesuit Created) Educated – Opus Dei ‘IESE Business School’ – Opus Dei ‘University of Navarra’ – Founded by Opus Dei Founder Jesuit Josemaria Escriva, S.J., O.D. – 1st Opus Dei College

Ethan Veneklasen
~ Head of Advocacy and Communications – ID2020

Jesuits Order’s ‘United Nations 2030 Sustainable Energy Development Plan’ – Babylonian (Roman) Universalism (Catholicism)

The Georgia Guidestones: The 10 Commandments of Rome – Created by ‘R.C. Christian’: Knight of Malta, Ted Turner, S.M.O.M.

Resistance Rising Team Research & Resources:

Johnny Cirucci:

Eric Bowman:

Doc Felipe:

En Goodz:

❤️ Yahusha is Ha'Mashiach, the Yachid of Yahuah, who is Elohiym and 'Echad

If you shall confess with your mouth Adonai Yahusha, and shall believe in your heart that Yah has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved.

🇻🇦 The Whore of Babylon is Rome #ResistanceRising
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2020.04.16 06:03 Cadaverousdragonmeme [DMASAP April 17th, 12:30 AM GMT] Darren Quest

DM: Cadaverousdragonmeme
Adventure: "The weather be good, m'shell says its time. We're goin' to hunt a hog thief munster."
Date/Time: April 17th, 12:30 AM GMT / April 16th 7:30 PM CST
Time Convertor: Perhaps We'll aim for 4 hours.
Members: Lookin' fer five wh'don't mind gettin' a lil salt in their puppy shells and won't cry fer mummy when a giant sea munster's thrashin' board me sekrit ship.
Name Level Class
Victoria 3 Fighter
Gnorbitt Sprockwoggle 3 Paladin
Inara 3 Wilderness Gal
Cairn 5 Mop Boy
Dutch 6 Zealous Barb
Knockout! 7 Monkish Hero
Responses should be formatted as below:
Character Name: Greg
Level: 5
Class: Arcana Cleric
Race: Greg
Number of Adventures: 0 [current character] / 0 [all characters]
Time Available: 5 hours
Game Priority: Only/1st/2nd/Etc. Priority
Skills: Greg is Greg. Fire Child of Destiny.
submitted by Cadaverousdragonmeme to wayfarer_inn [link] [comments]

2020.04.14 23:08 phillygoat [NM] NIB Laco Munster, 42mm Type A Flieger - 69 spots at $10/ea with no spot limit.

Item Name: NIB Laco Munster, 42mm Type A Flieger
Price: $690
# of Spots: 69
Previous Raffle (If applicable) N/A
Price Justification: No P2p comps
Price Justification: New at Amazon for $1142.03
Price Justification: New at Long Island Watch $1119
Price Justification: New at Laco $1190
Call spots? Y/N
Spot limit per person? 0
Location/Country: USA
Will ship international? USA
Escrow: Y u/Phillygoat for u/eudaimonean
Description: Up for raffle is a Laco Munster, 42mm automatic flieger. Condition is unworn/new with original box and undated warranty card. The Laco Munster model was inspired by the original WWII Laco Pilot watches. Inside is a Swiss Laco 24 automatic (self-winding) movement. The thermal blued hands and the dial markers are treated with SuperLuminova C3 for excellent readability in the dark. Like the original WWII Laco watches, there is no date window. Features a scratch resistant sapphire front crystal with an engraved steel case back. Like the original Luftwaffe models, the unique Laco case has FL23883 engraved on the 9:00 side.

PayPal Info: [REDACTED]

Tip BoyAndHisBlob
Number of vacant slots: 0
Number of unpaid users: 0
Number of unpaid slots: 0
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2020.03.22 12:33 xdeluxe ‘Some horny guys’: Munster torches teammates over NRL’s dating app stance

‘Some horny guys’: Munster torches teammates over NRL’s dating app stance submitted by xdeluxe to nrl [link] [comments]

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